Glitter Words

Camiguin...the Island Born of Fire
by: bhadz

The island-province of Camiguin is a pear-shaped volcanic island in the northern tip of Mindanao. It is approximately 90 kilometers north of the City of Cagayan de Oro. It is bounded to the north by Bohol Sea, to the west by Macajalar Bay, to the southeast by Gingoog Bay and to the east by Butuan Bay.

Camiguin is the smallest province in Northern Mindanao, with its land area pegged at 29,187 hectares. It is composed of five towns, namely, Mambajao – the capital town, Mahinog, Guinsiliban, Sagay and Catarman. The island plays host to seven volcanoes, including the still-active Mount Hibok-Hibok. According to the National Statistics Office, Camiguin has a total population of 74,232 persons, making the province the second smallest in the Philippines in terms of population.

Among the Province's major products are coconut, cassava, banana, camote, palay, corn, fruits, coffee and vegetables. Camiguin's volcanic soil has proved to be a fertile ground for planting various crops. At present, the Provincial government is looking into an agricultural program that would increase the cultivation of fruit trees and vegetables in Camiguin. The Province is also among the best abaca fiber producers in the country. Camiguin is proud of its natural resources, which include sulfur deposits, geothermal energy, agricultural lands and fishing grounds.

The Camiguin culture is a mixture of both Boholano and Cebuano culture. It is very colorful and creative. The people are deeply religious, hospitable and friendly. Cebuano is the major dialect in the Province. However, in the towns of Sagay and Guinsiliban, where most of the indigenous tribes reside, the Kinamiguin dialect is still spoken. Kinamiguin is derived from the Manobo dialect with some mixture of Boholano.


            The name Camiguin is derived from the native word “Kamagong”, a tree of the Ebony family that thrives near lake Mainit in the Province of Surigao del Norte. The original inhabitants of Camiguin were “manobos” who migrated from Surigao. The old native language in Camiguin is called “Kinamiguin”, which is similar to the dialect spoken in Surigao.

Spanish Period

            Old Spanish documents indicate that the renowned explorers, Ferdinand Magellan and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi landed in Camiguin in 1521 and 1565, respectively. The first Spanish settlement in what was later to be known as Guinsiliban was established in 1598. Guinsiliban comes from the old Kinamiguin word “Guinsiliban” which means  “to look out for pirates from a watchtower”. An old Spanish watchtower where the Camiguinons kept watch for Moro pirates still stands in Guinsiliban.

            The first major Spanish settlement established in 1679 was called Katagman or Katadman (known as Catarman). The settlement grew and prospered to what is now Barangay Bonbon. On May 1, 1871, Mt. Vulcan Daan erupted and destroyed the town. A portion of the town sank beneath the sea. After the eruption, the settlement moved to were the Catarman town center is presently located. Today, all the remains of old Catarman are the ruins of the ancient Spanish church, a convent and a bell tower.

            Sagay, located south of Catarman, was formally established as a town in 1848. The word Sagay is derived from the name of poisonous fruit tree that grow in the area.

            Mambajao became a town in 1855. The name was coined from the Visayan terms  “mamahaw”, meaning to usher breakfast, and “bajao”, which is leftover boiled rice. In the early 1900s, Mambajao prospered to become the busiest port in Northern Mindanao.

            Mahinog was established as a municipality in 1860. The name Mahinog comes from a Cebuano word meaning “to ripen” or “to become ripe”. Although Guinsiliban was the oldest settlement in the island, it was only in 1950 when it became a municipality. Both Mahinog and Guinsiliban were formally governed from Sagay.

American Period

            In 1901, in the middle of the Spanish-American War (1898-1904), American soldiers landed in Camiguin to assume political control over the island. A group of Camiguinons, armed with bolos and spears, led by Valero Camaro fought for the island’s independence from foreign invasion during a short battle in Catarman. Valero Camaro was killed by a bullet on the forehead. He became one of the unsung Camiguin patriots of the early independence movement.

            In 1903, the first public school in Camiguin was built in Mambajao and in 1904 the first public water system was installed.

            On June 18, 1942,  the Japanese Imperial Army landed in Camiguin and set up a government in Mambajao. The Japanese Army gutted down central Mambajao in reprisal to guerrilla activities there. The remains of some of these buildings still exist today.

Independence Era

            On July 4, 1946, the country gained independence from the United States of America and became the Republic of the Philippines. From 1946 to 1958, Camiguin was part of the Misamis Oriental. In 1958, it became a sub-province and in 1968, a full-fledged province with Mambajao as its provincial capital. 

Post-Independence Years: 1948-1951 

            From 1948 to 1951, Mt. Hibok-Hibok constantly rumbled and smoked. Its minor eruption in 1948 caused little damage and loss of life. In 1949, its eruption caused 79 deaths due to landslides. In the morning of December 4, 1951, the volcano erupted again. This, time, however, it unleashed boiling lava, poisonous gases, and landslides enough to destroy nearly 19 squares kilometers of land particularly in Mambajao. All in all, over 3,000 people were killed.

            Before the eruption of Mt. Hibok-Hibok in 1951, the population of Camiguin had reach 69,000. After the eruption, the population was reduced to about 34,000 due to massive out-migration.    

How To Get There

            The island can be reached either by ferryboat or small aircraft. The fastest way to get to Camiguin from Manila is to take any of the commercial flights to Cagayan de Oro City. In Cagayan de Oro, one can either hire a taxi right outside the airport or take the bus in the city center to Balingoan Port in Misamis Oriental. Depending on the weather condition, it takes about one hour and a haft to two hours by land to reach Balingoan Port, the nearest jump-off point to Camiguin. The ferryboat ride to Benone Port in the Municipality of Mahinog, Camiguin takes about one hour.  


The uniqueness for the Camiguinons artistry comes from the ability of the "Pinoys" to adopt other cultures and to incorporate borrowed ideas into their own.  

In the 1980's was the birth of the Camiguin Lanzones Festival, people began to prize their cultural heritage and revised interest in traditional arts and crafts. Folk dances such as spanish Dance, Pandanggo sa Ilaw, Tinikling have become a tourist attraction during the festival.  

The 19th century, Roman Catholic Church influenced painting and sculpture. Some of the people creature into sculpture of saints inherited during the Spanish regime. The artworks were usually very reasonably price and make good gifts or investments. 

Camiguin is also famous for its craftworks. Blessed with a natural artistry and abundance of a variety of handicraft materials, the people have long been making baskets, pottery, metalworks and other products. 


The island province registered a total population of 64,247 in 1990; 68,039 in 1995 and 742,32 in the year 2000. As of May 1, 2000 National Census, Mambajao accounted 41% of the total population; Mahinog-17 %; Guinsiliban-7%; Sagay-14% and Catarman- 21%. (Figure 1)


Its an old practiced to pray or petition the spirits for that harvest of crops, the catch of fish, healing for the sick, and petition the fairies who had inflected some of the practice and cultural heritage.


Its comes from the word “dalit-dalit” means “offering”. In 1982, the Barangay Bonbon officials headed by Barangay Chairman Librado Abesamis took institutionalizing the practiced of the people in terms of prayer relative to the harvest of Lanzones. Institutionalizing dawit-dawit started not with dances and presentations but just a community prayer in the ruins of old church.


In 1983, this was improved with civic participation, social activities. It was participated by the entire cross-section of the Barangay, Students both elementary and high school were the main, parents different puroks, religious organization, youth organization, and everybody in the Barangay were participants during 1983 celebration.


Dawit-dawit Ta Buahan practiced heritage. It is base in legendary stories. Legends about Lanzones and fairies although it has different settings but still base on legends and about Lanzones and fairies. Originally, the costumes are all native. It is made up of Lanzones leaves, dried banana leaves, “Ginit” and a mat made of Buli.

posted by maladaw at 7:47 AM


 Long time ago, there once lived a very beautiful maiden in a small barrio named “Karilag”. She is with her father Lum-ao and mother Birehna.

 Karilag is not only beauty, she’s also kind which made her famous all over the barrio. Because of that, many young men wanted to get her as their wife, but there is only one man who passed on Karilag’s qualifications and that is Kasim a farmer.

 Kasim marry Karilag, and they were both happy. He go to his farm everyday while her wife stay in their house and do her task as a simple housewife. They were contented.

 One day their happiness end when Tamaru – a rich man in the barrio who happened to be the suitor of Karilag ordered a grouped of men to abduct her. He is mad to her becaused of being taken for granted. He raped her and kill her and bury her in the farm of Kasim.

On the other hand, Kasim was very disturbed when he was not able to find her wife at home, so he searched for Karilag all over the barrio but he was not able to find her. He was not able to go farm anymore becaused he searched for his wife for almost three months already. Then one day, he give up in searching and back to his farm. In his surprised, he found out that there is a fruit tree that grew there, he tasted one of its fruit but on his great dismay, the fruit is not sweet, so he decided to cut it off but becaused he was very tired, he feel a sleep, while he was sleeping, he dreamed of his wife Karilag, talking to him. “Kasim my dear husband” I’m on that tree, I was killed by Tamaru, but pleased don’t askfor revenged, just take good care of that fruit tree for with that, I will be with you forever.

 After that incident, Kasim exerted his effort in taking good care of the tree. His there to guard it night and day, water it, and then talk with it as if its wife Karilag.

 Morning of October, Kasim went to his farm to visit the fruit tree. He was surprised becaused the fruit was already yellow in color (ripen) so he tried one and he was very happy becaused its already sweet and delicious. He let the barrio folks to taste it and like Kasim they all like its taste, Kasim told them that the fruit is a simple remembrance of his wife Karilag, like here wife the fruit is sweet. After that the barrio folks planted the seeds of the fruit, which they named “Buahan” from the word “Bulahan”.

Legend of Lake Mainit

February 8, 2008


Mainit Version:


Long time ago in the days of our forefathers, there lived in the virginal forest of the Diwata Mountains, a group of enchanted people or the “diwatas” and their beautiful pet birds, the hornbills or the “kalaws”. They lived harmoniously together, but as their number increased, troubles began. The hornbills, known as the clocks of the mountain, become so noisy with their incessant calls. Bickering started between the “diwatas” and the pet birds, the “kalaws”. The “diwatas” got fed up and they decided to part ways.


One night, when the moon was full, the “diwatas” met and wished their mountain homes away from the old place. The eldest of them took his wooden staff and tapped the ground three times. Immediately, the ground where they gathered rose and flew westward to open sea. The vacated spot was deep and soon it was filled with water coming from the veins of the mountains. The body of water became a lake and it is now the Mainit Lake. The piece of the land flew westward was caught by daybreak and it dropped into the open sea. Some say it became the Camiguin Island.

(Source: Municipality of Mainit, Surigao del Norte)


Jabonga Version:


Long, long time ago, there was no Lake Mainit. Instead, there was a fertile and productive land which was inhabited by animals with their supernatural King and Queen.


King Camig and Queen Ding were very happy with their kingdom full of assorted animals that every full moon, they had a merry-making. In one occasion, the hornbills which were beside the king and queen created loud and boisterous sound irritating the royal couple. King Camig and Queen Ding decide to leave the place at that instant in the middle of the special occasion.


Supernatural as they were, King Camig and Queen Ding were able to bring their land and find a peaceful place were they can transferred their land. In their hurry, a small portion of the land was left behind. An unattended teapot boiling with water tilted empting its content and the golden ladle was thrown out. When the royal couple was already in the Butuan Bay going to Misamis, King Camig remembered the golden ladle, so he commanded a small piece of land to fetch it; reminding it to hurry and comeback before the sun rises because something might happen. Unfortunately, it was caught by the sun rise and thru to its form; the land froze in its place and cannot move distance anymore. This land as they saw is now called Tubay-tubay because it only reached the Municipality of Tubay. Tubay-tubay is now a fixture of Tubay.


Right after the couple left, there was a heavy rainfall which made the vacated land filled with rainwaters. Apparently, it became a lake. On the other hand, the water from the boiling teapot made the lake hot sometimes, thus, the lake called Lake Mainit. The word “Mainit” is a Filipino term for hot.


It is believed that Camiguin Island was the new kingdom of King Camig and Queen Ding. Seen at an aerial view, the shape of this island is similar to the shape of the Lake Mainit. The flora and fauna of these two places are the same. The birds are all alike, except that there are no hornbills in Camiguin because they were purposely left behind.

(Source: Mayor’s Office, Jabonga, Agusan del Norte)


 Once upon a time, there are many tourists who came in Camiguin because they want to know what Camiguin is, because of the attractive spots of this place they didn’t know where they going to. In short they lost.

 In few weeks, they encounter unexpected circumstances in this place. They had no already foods to be eat. So they find way so that they can eat. They work and walk for finding their foods until they saw a one child and a one bird that eat the fruit. They observed it of what happened in eating that kind of fruits. In a few minutes after observing, they prove that there is no happened in the health of the child and the bird. They are very interested to taste that fruit because in their mind that maybe it can poison.

 In a mean while, fairy came. “You can eat this fruit; it is very sweet and delicious to be eaten. The name of this fruit is Lanzones” the fairy said. The tourist challenge to taste the fruit, and when they taste it they are together saying “wow! How nice this fruit its very sweet” because of the very delicious fruit, they eat and eat until they surrender.

 Because of the circumstances happened that the tourist witness how Lanzones fruit is delicious, they believed the Lanzones festival celebrate because it praise the abundant harvest of this fruit, and this is one tradition of the Camiguingnons people.

posted by maladaw at 7:45 AM

January 25, 2004

By Violeta Hughes-Davis; Photos by Collis H. Davis

Those who remember the 1951 eruption of Mt. Hibok-Hibok in Camiguin may still feel a twinge of fear at the memory of grey bodies buried in volcanic ash. For younger Filipinos who grew up in the era when the Department of Tourism started aggressively promoting domestic tourism, the name Camiguin evokes images of the annual Lanzones Festival in October where visitors savor the sweetest lanzones anywhere in the country. Between these two extremes, my husband and I found that Camiguin offers a lot more from within, especially as our visit was arranged by the Ecodevelopment Tour Program of the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM). We decided to spend our 2003 Christmas vacation there because we had long been intrigued by Camiguin, having heard rave reviews about it. In November we made arrangements with the PRRM Camiguin office and also made plane reservations to Cagayan de Oro City. From there, we drove to Balingoan, from where we would take the 90-minute ferry ride to Camiguin. During our 7-day stay, we got to know not only its tourist attractions; we also met many Kamiguingnons.

As it turned out, December, with its generous dose of low pressure weather, was not the best time to visit Camiguin. It was raining when we arrived and we learned that it had been raining for a week. It was only on the second day that the rain abated but even then, the sun never fully came out. Stalked by nimbus clouds throughout the week, we felt like Eeyore with his gloomy cloud. What we did not know was that in 1991, several days of non-stop rain caused a disastrous landslide that buried 200 lowlanders. We were too focused on making the most of our stay to worry about any lurking danger.

Two goals inform the policy of PRRM's tours: to show off the area's natural attractions while making sure that the activities do the least damage to the environment and the local culture, and to help alleviate poverty by promoting local sustainable development. In spite of the weather, our excellent guide, Jack Prima and our skilled driver Ron Cabel, made sure that we hewed to these goals without sacrificing our pleasure, taking us to as many tourist spots around the island as the weather permitted, and giving us time to interact with the locals through the homestay program. Thus, we experienced living in Nay Asiang's 109-year old house (see photo above) in barangay Mainit. We visited the observatory of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology at the foot of Mt. Hibok-Hibok where the computers and two giant sensors donated by the Japanese government sense both earth and volcanic tremors. We walked around the ruins of Guiob church, its convent and belfry, which were all buried by the 1871 eruption of Vulcan Daan. From here, we saw the site of the Spanish cemetery, sank into the sea by the same eruption. Towards the end of the week when the weatherimproved, we soaked in the hot springs after we returned from snorkeling around White Island, a pure white sand bar in the middle of Bohol Sea. We skipped the cold spring as it was too cold even for a quick dip but opted for a short trek to gaze up at the 6-meter Katibawasan Falls in Mambajao. I even made it to the first station of the Cross on Mt. Vulcan where the fourteen stations of the Cross are commemorated higher and higher up the mountain steps.

We marveled at all these natural phenomena, but were more impressed with the people we met. Most of them were either farmers or fishermen, and all were articulate (in English), self-confident, full of dignity, and proud of their manual skills in producing handicrafts. From them, we learned how eels are caught by hand, how fishermen catch fish by the seine method with a group of fishermen pulling in from the sea a 500-meter long fish net, tuba-extraction, tablea-making from cacao beans, the cultivation of giant clams, the production and packaging of banana chips, the process of extracting oil from coconut, the intricate art of weaving nito strips into sturdy baskets and trays, and the day-to-day operation of a coop sari-sari store.


We learned much about Camiguin, a 292 sq. km of land lying off the coast of Oriental Misamis, where about 70,000 residents live, many of whom are fishermen and farmers. An excellent 64-km highway girds the island, and affords dramatic views of the sea at various points. To travel from one point to another, residents use the "motorela", a fancier and slightly bigger tricycle. A sprinkling of Westerners married to local women live here and run some of the inns and diving resorts. Four of the 5 families with whom we stayed count 2 or 3 family members working as OFWs. Proofs of "katas ng Saudi ", usually the latest model of flat-screened TV sets and elaborate sound systems occupy a conspicuous space in their salas.

Kamiguingnons are proud of their multi-layered culture and history, and have now started to acknowledge the pre-Hispanic part of their culture. Thus, homes built during the Spanish era adorned with Okkil art are now referred to as "antellian" instead of "Spanish", to give equal credit to the architectural influence of Moslem Mindanao. Enigmata, a bed-and-breakfast facility ( ) managed by an artist for artists, advocates for this multi-layered view of Camiguin art, music and architecture.

Food on the island is simple but no less delicious. In the Camiguin port of Benoni, we lunched at a restaurant in a lagoon that was the crater of an extinct volcano. We enjoyed the stuffed lapu-lapu, the crabs and a different-tasting kilawen. The juice of the tabon-tabon fruit, found only on Camiguin, distinguishes its kilawen from all others. On another occasion, in a restaurant by the roadside called Sara's Hideaway, we savored the most delicious grilled blue marlin I have ever had. Crisp on the outside and tender like butter on the inside, it could merit the unpretentious resto a 4-star rating.

For dinner, our host families served mostly fish with rice, but it was almost always newly harvested rice. We were introduced to a delicious strain of rice called Valencia from Bukidnon and to ginamos, the local fish-based bagoong, and discovered how new rice and ginamos can make for a most satisfying meal. We came too late in the year to certify that Camiguin lanzones are indeed the sweetest, but we hope to do so during the 2004 Lanzones Festival. Unfortunately, politics has encroached on the island's eatery business, as Coke and Pepsi have become unwitting political symbols. You can tell with whom a business establishment is politically allied by the soft drink it serves: the party in power has a Coke franchise, so for their supporters, Coke is it. The opposition serves only Pepsi.

PRRM organizes similar tours for El Nido, Marinduque, and the Ifugao Rice Terraces through the national office in Quezon City (63-02-372-3931).

Its email address is and its website is ( The telephone number of the Camiguin office is (63-088-387-1102).

Camiguin Songs


 Oh inday kong pinalangga

Mina-iling kataba-nud na nagpungasi

Dija ta kalaw-ran

Nailing ka alimpu-os na naghaguros

Dija poon ta subangan na nagbit-bit

Ta arage na uran.



Mina-iling ka ta kaba-kaba

Na nanuhik-tuhik ta buwak

Na an-tuwanga

Ikaw ha kanding na bungoton

Na naghangad-hangad ta pus-on ko na



Ikaw ha baton a bantilis

Na ing-tipak daw-ing ligis-ligis

Bad-bare raw ha dughan ko

Na nag-dukiraw

Daw bali-aglawag ta baje

Na ag kapung-kujan


Naimo ba gajud ha ako

Kinabuhi, ba man malisang

Tuod ha agdumili.



 Mapait bat u-od pagsud-ongon

Ha lungsod ta kalambugan

Ihalas na basak sakop ta kamurusan

Wa du-on rentoy

Rentoy, wa du-on patay-patay

Kapatas ha nagbantay kabun

Nag panaw-panaw trabahante

Ha na nga pa-uk ta indan

Trabaho na was duon klaro

A ga gi indan sweldo ta sapi

Ta gobyerno.





Duol kaigsuonan

Ko ug paminaw kamo

Duna lang koy istorya

Unta magustuhan ninyo

Gusto ko nga ipahibalo

Kung unsay tinuod

Nga nahitabo

Sa kinabuhi nako



Paminaw kamo sa akong isulti

Basi kini sa akong life story

Naning kamot ko kay lagi pobre

Pobre na kaminosan ta permi

Ang akong gibati

Ako lang gipaubos

Bisan sa ako daghan nakaminos

Wala sa huna-huna ang manimalos

Because just only God knows

Porke ba nga ako pobre

Busa kamo dili magpabali-bali

Kini timan-e ayaw pag-enarte

Kay di tanan panahon

Inyo permi.

(repeat chorus)



Sa akong pag-eskwela

Walay nagsuporta

Kay utro pong wala

Ang akong mama ug papa

Kung unsa makita maora

Usahay magsud-an lang

Ug tuyong tinapa

Sa CPSC sige lang kog ngise

Bisan akong karsones

Pulos gise

Sa akong luyo daghang nahimoot

Kay nakita ang akong sampot

Busa mga batan-on

Paminaw na kamo sa

Akong tambag

Ayaw mo pagpanintal

Mga hubag.



Ki datu kabunghan


Minahal ko na basak

Mutja di ta kadagatan

Hibok-hibok ha ija dagnay

Kamigin mahal ta kanak dughan


Katam-is tai mo na buwahan

Patsada ha mga kadagahan

Tubig na ingkaja-an

Ta mga kautawan


Hikaw ha ingdomdom ko kanunay

Minahal ko bisan ha imo hojokoy

Pagkatam-is magtima ta imo landing

Handi kalinaw hay naghari

(repeat 2x)



-Pedro Rivera-



Inay na puon ta ann

Ta sampaw binantajan

Dakol ka buahanan

Diwa Diwa Diwa, Diwata Diwa Diwata


Nag igpot-igpot ki ann

Ta kasadya ta buahan

Na ha ay agsaligan

Camiguingnon kabuhian


Diwa Diwa Diwa, Diwata Diwa Diwata



Ang tawag sa tanan

Kitang tanan nagtingbaya…yong

Minahal natong yuta pulo sa… Camiguin



(Repeat VI stanza except first line)


Pagkadaghan sa buahan

Pagkatam-is sa buahan

Minahal ko na basak

Mutya niining kadagatan

Hibok-hibok haijanganganan

Camiguin mahal ta angkan


Pagkatam-is ta imong buahan

Patsyada ang mga kadagahan

Tubig naing kabadja-an

Ta mga kautawan


Buahan pagkadaghan

Buahan pagkatam-is

Buahan sa Camiguin

Adto nata!


During the pre-Spanish time until the American occupation, piracy, kidnapping, and banditry were rampant along the coastline of the country. In Mindanao, the Moro were the most notorious group who rampaged with the villagers especially in those islands that were accessible to their vintas.


In Camiguin, there were vicious looting, kidnapping and the marauders used to set the villagers on fire, leaving the islanders in complete panic. It was with this sad experience that the relatives in the southern part of the island joined their efforts to counteract merciless attacks. They agreed to construct a watch tower. Day in and day out, the villager turns in looking over the sea from the tower in which invaders if there would probably succumb to their prepared traps, spears, and pointed bamboos.


At present, the people call the tower, Moro Tower. The place where the tower was built is now the Municipality of Guinsiliban which was originally called "ginsilipan".


Some of the Kinamiguin word!!!!!








maupay na hapon

maupay na duman

maupay na aga








kumini kaw




ajaw iyak

in ino ay


naibog ay nimo


dija sampaw





bamos ki

dagan ki







malinaw hajan nga lugar

















pag upay sa pagpanaw

hat ajan





di joy tuod




pagtiruga on dijan


maupay na pag-abot dine

ino ay imo ngaran

ino ay nahitabo


handi ka poon

handi ka pailing




Lectures on Ecotourism

definitions of ecotourism


 responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of the local people


 traveling to relatively undisturbed natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals


 nature base tourism that involves education and interpretation of the natural environment and is managed to be ecologically sustainable

two key words in defining eco-tourism

 conserve the environment

 improve the lives

other buzzwords or terms used for eco-tourism

 nature tourism

 adventure travel sustainable tourism

 sacred tourism

 green tourism

 responsible tourism

 cultural tourism

 multi-sport adventure

 community–based sustainable tourism

types of adventure

 hard

 soft


defining points of Martha Honey of ecotourism

 involves travel to natural destinations

 minimizes impact

 builds environmental awareness

 provides direct financial benefit for conservation

 provides financial benefit an empowerment of local people

 respects local culture

 supports human rights and democratic movements


motives and ethics behind eco-tourism

 is the environment being card for?

 Is there genuine effort to help local economies?

 Are resources being left intact for future generations?

 Is the local culture being honored and valued and not just photographed?


benefits of win-win ecotourism

 An enterprise with potential positive contributions to the conservation of endangered biological resources

 Raise awareness about the value of biological resources for better conservation practices

 Increase local participation in the benefits of biodiversity conservation

 Nature tourists bring and generate revenues which can be used in operating and protecting natural resources

 Increase appreciation in bio-diversity


issues in ecotourism

 Risks on unregulated ecotourism and pollution due to poor waste management system

 Distribution of benefits between the control of international travel agents and tourism industry vs. local communities who are often less advantaged in terms of economic benefit

 Perceptions such as fear that protected areas will become playgrounds for international tourists instead of being usd for farming

 Lack of information


pilot projects of DOT in year 2001-2003

Bohol dolphin watching

 Ifugao – Rice Terraces Institutional Capacity Building for Banawe tour operators and guides

Mt. Pinatubo Trekking

Mt. Apo Signages, Davao


operating dimensions of CBST

 Political

 Social

 Cultural

 Economic

 Ecological

cultural assets in communities

 Meaning of your community name

 First families

 National symbols

 Flora and fauna

 Farming or fishing implements

 Natural wonders

 Traditional ways

suggested environmental ethics in nature tourism and mountaineering

 Prepare well with regards to route, food, clothing, first-aid etc

 Know the local practices, respect local customs and traditions

 While trekking into the wilderness avoid widening trails, use established trails

 Careful selection of the campsite at least 100 feet away from the water source

 Carry out all of non-biodegradable garbage. Bury only biodegradable trash. Pick up litters as you encounter.

 Use established latrines or make catholes 100 feet away from the water source for proper sanitation

 Minimize using soap in washing yourself or wash at least 100 feet away from water source

 Do everything you can to protect water source from contamination and lessen your impact on water sources

 Keep fires small or enjoy and experience a fireless evening and look at some stars.

 Avoid smoking if possible

 Minimize impact on the land with mountain bikes

 Blend with the camp and nature

 Keep group small

 Leave pest home

 Soft softly and gently, avoid shouting or rowdy games in natural environment

 Respect the solitude of others

 Join environmental outdoor organizations

qualities essential for effective tour guiding

 enthusiasm

 outgoing and approachable nature

 self-confidence

 proactive nature

 sensitivity

 flexibility

 authenticity

 pleasant, professional appearance

 sense of humor

 knowledge

 good communication skills

 organization

 decisiveness

 good health

 personal integrity

 charisma



National Integrated Protected Areas Systems


NIPAS is a classification and administration of all designated protected areas to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, to ensure sustainable use of resources found therein, and to maintin their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible.



August 2000

Provincial Ordinance No. 00-01

“An ordinance declaring Camiguin Island

A Plastic Free Province”

“Whereas, the Province of Camiguin is committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the ecosystem;

Whereas, it is the responsibility of the local government to effectively and efficiently implement programs/projects and activities that could promote a clean, sanitary an healthful environment for its population;

Whereas, the Province of Camiguin is one of the prime tourist destination in the country and there is a need to eradicate unsightly surroundings polluted by plastics and other plastic-coated materials;


Wild Life Resources

Conservation and Protection Act

R.A. 91 47


•To Conserve And Protect Wildlife And Their Habitats, To Promote Ecological Balance And Enhance Biological Diversity

•To Regulate The Collection And Trade Of Wild Life

•To Pursue With Due Regard To The International Interest, The Philippine Commitment To International Conventions, Protection Of Wildlife And Their Habitat

•To Initiate Or Support Scientific Studies On The Conservation Of Biological Diversity


Categories To Protected Areas

•Strict Natural Reserve

Natural Park

Natural Monument

•Wild Sanctuary

•Protected Landscape And Seascape

•Resource Reserve

•Natural Biotic Areas


Protected Landscape and Seascapes


Proclamation No. 570


Declaring Mt. Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Mountain Range situated in the municipalities of Mambajao, Mahinog, Sagay and Catarman, Province of Camiguin as a Protected Area and its Peripheral Areas as Buffer Zone pursuant to Republic Act 7536 (NIPAS Act of 1992) and shall be known s Timpoong-Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument


•Organized Protected area Management Board (PAMB)

•Are areas of natural significance which are characterized by the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas.


Declaring Mt. Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Mountain Range situated in the municipalities of Mambajao, Mahinog, Sagay and Catarman, Province of Camiguin as a Protected Area and its Peripheral Areas as Buffer Zone pursuant to Republic Act 7536 (NIPAS Act of 1992) and shall be known s Timpoong-Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument




Natural Monument is relatively a small area focused on protection of small features to protect or preserve nationally significant natural features on account of their special interests or unique characteristics.


SPECIFIC Conditions for the Mt. Timpoong and Mt. Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument (To be coordinated with the DENR)


1.The group shall provide themselves competent guide(s) who is (are) familiar with the route or trails in the area desired to be visited.


2.Collecting of any plant and animal species inside he protected area without permit is strictly prohibited, punishable under Sec. 21 of R.A. 7586 (NIPAS Law) and Republic Act No. 9147 (Wild Life Resources Conservation and Protection Act).


3.Littering/leaving any non-biodegradable materials such as plastic cups, wrappers and plastic bags is strictly prohibited inside the area.


4.Coodinate with local government units.


5.Sleeping at the Mt. Timpoong and Mt. Hibok-Hibok summit is strictly prohibited instead at the designated camping areas or settlement area in the buffer zone.


6.The leader of the group shall be held responsible for violation of the foregoing terms committed by the members while inside the protected areas.


7.The DENR/PAMB shall not be responsible in any untoward incident that may happen to any member of the group during their stay in the area.


8.Briefing should be done before going to the area.





Protected under Philippine Laws and International treaty

Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 (Republic Act No. 8550 Sec. 97)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (all species of giant clam)

Fisheries Administrative Order No. 158


Prohibited Shelled Mollusks

Common name Local name












Prohibited CORALS















            Camiguin’s landscape covering 29,000 hectares is influenced by the volcanicity of the area with eight volcanoes. Mount Hibok-hibok, being the only one active, is a considerable tourist attraction. Both hot and cold springs and waterfalls inland, and white sand beaches and offshore islands all contribute to the wealth of natural tourist attractions on the island and provide numerous opportunities for special interest activities such as scuba diving, snorkeling and mountain climbing. The island also offers many cultural experiences to the visitors; historical artifacts including churches; festival celebrating agricultural industry, religious saints and events


            From 1990 to 1993, the number of tourist visiting Camiguin increased from almost twelve thousand to over a hundred and sixteen thousand. The regional Tourism Master Plan for Northern Mindanao envisages Camiguin as promoting its natural environment with basic facilities and human resources development. Key markets are domestics’ tourism and adventure and leisure traveler from abroad, and it is expected that tourists will number two hundred thousands by 2010.

Natural and Cultural Environment


                        The sustainable development of tourism at a destination has a direct impact on the local community, economic viability and visitor experience. Well planned and managed destinations so that their physical, cultural and social resources are conserved, will continually attract visitors and maintain the resulting jobs, income and revenue.


            Camiguin Island has a wealth of natural features which give it a distinctive reputation as an ‘island paradise’. Most of the island is covered with vegetation, coconuts, fruit trees and forests. This volcanic island offers a wide range of natural environments including volcanic mountains, rainforest, waterfalls, hot and cold springs, white beaches and coral reefs. With proper management, tourism to Camiguin’s natural attractions will develop and sustain or improve the natural assets on which tourism is based.



            A coastal zone management plans for the whole island does not exist, but plans cover Barangay Cantaan, Guinsiliban and Barangay San Roque including Mantigue Island, Mahinog. A coastal resource management plan has been proposed although not yet implemented for Bonbon, but a nature reserve does exist. Marine protected areas or nature reserves exist at Barangay Bugang, Sagay, Mantigue Island, and Tapon Poblacion, Mambajao.


            There appears to be some confusion about water quality and treatment between the DENR in Mambajao and the individual municipalities. The DENR state that there are specific standards in place to monitor the quality of coastal water and that a joint team from the local health office and the DENR are carrying our periodic water sampling.



            Throughout the province there are numerous natural attractions. These include:

ARDENT HOT SPRINGS – 6km from Mambajao, with picnic areas, shower rooms, comfort rooms, overnight accommodation (dorminotory, cottages)            and restaurant.

TANGUB HOT SPRINGS – 13km from Mambajao, at the base of Old Vulcan Daan with no tourist services.

SANTO NINO COLD SPRING – 4km Catarman, with picnic areas, rest rooms, shower facilities and food services.

MACAO COLD SPRING – Tupsan, Pequeno, Mambajao, with no tourist services.

TAGUINES LAGOON – Benoni, Mahinog, ideal for motor boating, swimming and picnicking, with restaurant and overnight accommodation.

WHITE ISLAND – East of Agoho, Mambajao, natural white sandbar and shore, ideal for snorkeling, sunbathing and scuba diving, inhabited.

MANTIGUE ISLAND – 4 hectares evergreen forest, white sand beach, ideal for picnicking, snorkeling, scuba diving and beach combing, no overnight accommodation.

AGOHAY BEACH – Mambajao, with sandy beach, native cottages, multi-purpose building, motor boats, popular resting place and camping spot for M. Hibok-hibok trekkers.

JICDUFF REEF – Mambajao, raised reef ideal for snorkeling and scuba diving.

KATIBAWASAN FALLS – Pandan, Mambajao, with rest house and picnic facilities.

TUASAN FALLS – 5km from Catarman at the foot of Mt. Hibok-hibok.

MT. HIBOK-HIBOK – five-hour hike from Barangay Esperanza to the top, no accommodation.

OLD VULCAN – 13 km from Mambajao, the landmark of ‘Panaad’ an activity in Holy Week.




Panaad – walking the circumferential road and trekking up Vulcan as an of penitence and spiritual enrichment in Holy Week.

 Lanzones Festival – 2 days of exhibit, Barangay beautification, indigenous sport, local culture and foods, in October, trade fair.

San Juan Hibok-hibokan – in honor of St. John the Baptist June 24, on the beaches of Cabuan and Agohay, celebrations with water sports, Miss Hibok-hibokan.

 Fiesta sa Bonbon – fluvial parade in May.





Camiguin, being a volcanic island, is endowed with the picturesque environment attributed to a variety of natural formations – seven volcanoes, waterfalls, hot and cold springs and beaches.



Camiguin is rendered less attractive because of excessive littering and unsightly street furniture.



The varied topography o Camiguin is conductive to a wide range of sporting activities that can distinguish it from other prized destination islands like Palawan and Boracay – mountain/volcano climbing, hand gliding, biking, etc…



Other island like Palawan and Boracay are favorite island destinations and are frequented by the richer traveler.







1.      Protection and management of the coastline of Camiguin whilst continuing to allow and encourage its use for recreation.

N1 – continue to implement proposals to develop coastal management plans in distinct area In Camiguin, with the aim to eventually develop an island wide coastal zone management plan.


N2 - develop further designations of protection for coastal areas which have specific interests in terms of their fauna or flora.


N3 - set in place beach litter collection schemes in each municipality with bins provided and regular collection of rubbish, in addition to beach clean up operations in more popular areas, and information signs to educate users of the need to remove litter.


N4 – develop a system of fining for litter dropping on beaches, which can then fund development within municipalities of collection schemes.


N5 – carry information And awareness campaign for individual municipalities to educate relevant officers about the programme of water quality checking being carried out by DENR, and the standards to which they must comply. Training should also provide information about ways in which municipalities can improve water quality.



2.      Protection and conservation of the natural and cultural features of Camiguin


N6 – conduct carrying capacity surveys of existing natural and cultural features and of the surrounding landscape.


N7 – develop management plans, prioritizing for more popular attractions first, in response to the carrying capacity survey and current use.


N8 – work with local communities to develop access to less used features through marked walking trails and transport provision.


N9 – increase the value to the local communities of the forest through tourism use to discourage illegal logging.


N10 – work to enforce deforestation laws in forest areas on a local level.


N11 – set up island wide comprehensive litter collection system and initial clean up scheme, to ensure that litter does not decrease the attractiveness of the island.


3.      Improve tourists and local community knowledge about the environment and the threats to it.


N12 – encourage the interest of the local community in their local environment and its protection, and highlight their dependence on a quality environment, through a Community Training and Education Programme.




 Resources: Ms. Rosalie Zerrudo

                 Enigmata Treehouse Galeri

Travel Pointers:

1. DO RESEARCH. Find out more about the customs and culture of the people in the places you are about to visit, as it will do much to enhance one’s visit to the place. To do this, make a quick visit to your local Internet shop or browse through brochures found at travel agencies or at hotel front desks. Keep in mind that costly misunderstandings may easily be avoided through research.

2. ENGAGE THE LOCALS. Try to know more about the place, culture, or even local legends in the place you are to visit. Engage the locals in a discourse. Who knows, you could even charm them into disclosing that generations-old recipe of their favorite dish.

3. VISITORS ARE SIMPLY THAT: VISITORS. The locals are the ones who have to live in the place all year round, so don’t abuse their hospitality. Respect the environment and the cultures of the people living in that place. Do your share in keeping the place clean and habitable. The Filipino is indeed an endearing race, and Victory Liner’s latest advocacy only hopes to bring out all these wonderful qualities out in the open.

4. PRESERVING NATURE IS A BIG HELP TO LOCALS. Take nothing but pictures, and choose only souvenirs that do not come from irreplaceable natural resources like limestone rocks

from the caves. This may help deter unscrupulous locals from destroying our natural resources just to earn a few pesos.

5. TALK ABOUT YOUR EXPERIENCES. Share wonderful anecdotes of your travels with your loved ones, friends, and business associates both in the Philippines and abroad. Hopefully, this may further encourage them to visit the said places themselves. And don’t forget to also bring home some pasalubong or local souvenirs to help you remember the place.

Tips to become a responsible traveler and a volunteer.


Get involved in many ways. Everyone gets the blues when far away from familiar places and people, so resist the urge to hide. Instead, in addition to your regular volunteer work, look for volunteer teaching positions at places such as a music school or radio station.

Find other people with whom you can go out to dinner or invite people to dinner at your house.

Say “hello” to everyone you pass in the street. You’ll be surprised at the people you may meet.

Walk everywhere you can. You’ll meet more people. Your neighbors on the street will begin to greet you. And you will see more and feel great because of all the exercise.

Eat the local food. There was so much good cheap food in Thimphu that we often ate at small restaurants. We enjoyed the street food, too. We came to know the ladies selling momos (Tibetan dumplings) outside the hospital. We’d have a snack from sidewalk vendors selling juice, soda, gum, and peanuts. If you constantly judge whether you will get sick from something new then you are on the wrong adventure. Take care and take antibiotics with you.

Shop at the ubiquitous small stores. All of these stores sell the basics, so go to your corner store and get what you need. On the weekend visit the outdoor vegetable market.

When traveling outside of town, stay in local hotels and guesthouses to experience a country more authentically and inexpensively than in Western-style hotels. Sometimes it will be necessary to hire a car and driver. If you do, take advantage of this as an opportunity to glean travel advice and learn from the driver about his country.

Find the local library and use it. Also, go to the movies. We didn’t know the language, Dzongkha, but the plot was pretty obvious and we learned more about Bhutan by watching movies.

Accept inconveniences and delays, which are a part of life in developing countries. Remind yourself that you are a volunteer and stop expecting that you will change whatever system you are working with. Enjoy getting to know new people with different ways of doing things.

Keep in mind that you moved to a new country to experience its differences and that you will be returning to the world you are more familiar with soon enough; in the meantime, take a deep breath and relax. It will do you no good to complain and it will probably make people uncomfortable.

Follow the regulations and do not expect special privileges. In Bhutan, travel on the roads is restricted to those persons who have permission to be in that section of the country. The rules were written so that the unspoiled countryside you came to see can remain so.

Sources: gathered from various authors..

This are some of the Tourist Attraction in the Island...come and explore the wonder of Camiguin....the Island Born of Fire...

This are some of the endemic "flora and fauna" of Camiguin Island......

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